A total of 270 Middle Palaeolithic sites are recorded in the Portuguese Archaeology Archive. However, only a few were systematically excavated, present valuable archaeological information and show reliable absolute date results. Amongst them, 13 archaeological sites yielded animal remains, but most of these assemblages are of indeterminate origin, or due to natural or carnivore accumulations. Therefore, only three sites have faunal assemblages produced by hominin activity: Gruta Nova da Columbeira, Gruta da Figueira Brava and Gruta da Oliveira. The last two caves are the ones currently being studied for a funded research project conducted in UCL Institute of Archaeology, therefore, providing substantial information on Neanderthal subsistence and palaeoenvironment in Portugal.